Transistor Problems And Solutions Pdf

MOSFET Current Sources Reference: Neamen, Chapter 10 (4) Learning Outcome Able to: • Analyze and design a basic two-transistor MOSFET current-source circuit with additional MOSFET devices in the reference portion of the circuit to obtain a given bias current. In this circuit, Q1 is the input transistor, held at a constant voltage by Q2. Unfortunately this means I would have to use a PNP driving transistor (or could a get away with an NPN?) and PNP's have a habit of blowing up when I try to use them. What's more, Orcad family products are a suite of applications built around an engineer's design flow—. PDF | On Feb 24, 2018, Shree Krishna Khadka and others published Bipolar Junction Transistor. ) with full confidence. A simple circuit containing an inverter chip, diodes, trimpot, and capacitor creates the variable duty-cycle PWM. However, when I build the simulation in multisim, I get an DC output voltage of 3. You can ensure product safety by selecting from certified suppliers,. COATES 2007 -2012 Power Amplifiers Introduction to Power Amplifiers Power Amplifiers Amplifier circuits form the basis of most electronic systems, many of which need to produce high power to drive some output device. The biggest problems with the numbers presented is that the transistors do vary a lot in production, and the On conditions are curves, not tidy linear lines that fit easily into formula. growing computational demands and the stagnating transistor budgets caused by the slowdown of CMOS scaling. Instruction Count. Target Audience: Graduate students and advanced undergraduates in electrical engineering, computer engineering and physics interested in VLSI devices and circuits. Home » transistor problems and solutions pdf. Solution 2: Multiple V T Transistors Technology solution: Use (near) zero V T devices for the NMOS PTs to eliminate most of the threshold drop (body effect still in force preventing full swing to V DD) Impacts static power consumption due to subthreshold currents flowing through the PTs (even if V GS is below V T) Out In 2 = 0V In 1 = 2. Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Transistors In addition to reading the questions and answers on my site, I would suggest you to check the following, on amazon, as well: Question Bank in Electronics & Communication Engineering by Prem R Chadha. Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems Academic Resource Center. Junction Transistor A junction transistor is three terminal semiconductor device consisting of two p-n junctions formed by placing a thin layer of doped semiconductor ip-type or n-type) between two thick similar layers of opposite type. amplitude modulation) • Symbol for Diode: anode cathode positive current flow. The Duan group at UCLA has developed a high current density vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) that benefits from the strengths of the incorporated layered materials yet addresses the band gap problem found in current graphene technologies. ) with full confidence. I just hope transistors die as fast as possible and we find something else to do the logic work. For example, a node that is two levels down in a 5-variable problem might represent the partial solution 3-17-?-?-?, in which the first variable has a value of 3 and the second variable has a value of 17. Why Electronic Devices Bipolar Junction Transistors? In this section you can learn and practice Electronic Devices Questions based on "Bipolar Junction Transistors" and improve your skills in order to face the interview, competitive examination and various entrance test (CAT, GATE, GRE, MAT, Bank Exam, Railway Exam etc. Markov, the University of Michigan (currently at Google) Abstract An indispensable part of our lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Bipolar Junction Transistor Common Base Configuration In common base configuration, emitter is the input terminal, collector is the output terminal and base terminal is connected as a common terminal for both input and output. ” At Caltech, Mead. c1383 transistor datasheet The transmitter does not need the transistors, diodes, R3, R4, and R5. Appendices. of cascode operation on both the common-emitter voltage gain stage and the common-collector output stage. 8Numeric answers to. 644 Principles of Electronics Here we can say that the circuit has h parameters given by h11 = 10 Ω ; h12 = 6 ; h21 = 4 and h 22 = 3 ∑. CHAPTER 8 SOLUTIONS 43 3 series transistors 2 series transistors Based on this analysis, a three series transistor gate array looks the lowest area. A Solution Manual contains the answers to the end of chapter questions and activities from the textbook. Impact of Implementing a Dedicated Outdoor Air System in Parallel with a Multi-Zone Variable-Air Volume System on Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort, and Life Cycle Cost, Khaled Alghamdi. Class B is far more efficient, but can lead to signal distortions. 85 kg from Problem 1 of Exercise 327 Standard deviation, σ = Determine the. MOSFET Current Sources Reference: Neamen, Chapter 10 (4) Learning Outcome Able to: • Analyze and design a basic two-transistor MOSFET current-source circuit with additional MOSFET devices in the reference portion of the circuit to obtain a given bias current. Solving a transistor circuit and determine the base current. ECE 410 Homework 4 -Solutions Spring 2008 Problem 1 Design a CMOS circuit to implement the following function. 5"x11" pages of your notes (2 sides), and the Single Xtr Amplifier Models handout (3 pages). Step 2 - ENFORCE the conditions of the assumed mode. They are called active devices since transistors are capable of amplifying (or making larger) signals. The middle section (base) is narrow and one of the other two regions (emitter) is heavily doped. Solved: 05-DC Circuits Solutions To The Problems In This T Filter Circuits-Working-Series Inductor,Shunt Capacitor,RC Filter,LC Problem with large currents flows that produce heat in H bridge. Many different terms, such as bump, glitch, power surge,. Re: Does T43 have a fuse or a mosfet (power transistor) ‎04-17-2011 08:15 PM - edited ‎04-17-2011 08:18 PM If it works on battery, I would first look at fuse F2 on the motherboard, which is right next to where the power connector comes in. To describe branch and bound in detail, we first need to introduce some terminology: Node: any partial or complete solution. - High current gain equal to the product of the two transistor current gains • Often used as a single transistor for higher beta. Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL) n If any input goes high, the transistor saturates and V OUT goes low. Chapter 6: Physics of MOS Transistors. What the transistor is. Output I-V characteristics of a Power Transistor 6. 5mA utilizes transistors for which V A=10V and β=100 and RC=10k Ω. PDF | Junctionless transistors are variable resistors controlled by a gate electrode. This is what we have done for decades. Solving a transistor circuit and determine the base current. including complementary CMOS, ratioed logic (pseudo-NMOS and DCVSL), and pass-transistor logic. 3 The body effect does not change (a) because Vsb = 0. Solution No c. This archive has general purpose programs for solving probability problems as well as speci c. EECE2412 Final Exam with Solutions Note that the transistor is different in the two FET problems. Experiment: Transistor Circuit Design. This is how I understand the working of a transistor: In a bipolar junction transistor the width of base is very small therefore very small number of carrier undergo recombination inside base, whereas, the. the equivalent of this transistor C2073 and A940 - Office Equipment & Supplies question That is a Sanyo type of line output transistor, sometimes used in power. I remain convinced however that there should be a way to do this with a single transistor that feeds back onto itself, but I can't quite get it to work. This is especially the case with old BJT OAs like the LM741. ASI’s portfolio of RF pulsed power transistors have been designed from the ground up to address the specific needs of high power pulsed systems. doc 1/8 Jim Stiles The Univ. 5 3 Voltage V CE (V) Current I C (mA) Q-point Ideal Saturation Ideal Cut-off. n "Current Hogging" is a problem because the bipolar transistors can not be matched precisely. Cell Phones. Course Information Spring 2012 Homeworks and Solutions. 2] The transistors in the circuits of the preceding problem have been sized to give an output resistance of 13 k Ω for the worst-case input pattern. , they have no memory. Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems Academic Resource Center. GATE Practice Problems on JFET (Junction Field Effect Transistor) 1. in If the transistor is replaced with two diodes connected back-to-back, we get, 1 k 1 k B 5 V E 10 V D1 D2 C I3. transistor's base, electrons in the emitter are prevented from passing to the collector side because of the pn junction. The name field-effect transistor or FET refers to the fact that the gate turns the transistor (inversion layer) on and off with an electric field through the oxide. The dielectric layers were annealed at 150°C for 60 min. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Basics- GATE Problems One Mark Questions 1. Output I-V characteristics of a Power Transistor 6. For a tunnel junction with C= 0:5 aF and R t = 100 k, what is the RCtime constant? What does this value mean for the tunnel junction circuit? Solution: ˝= R tC= 0:5 10 18 100 103 = 5:0 10 14 s (222) is the characteristic time between tunneling events. Removing all elements bypassed by the short-circuit equivalents introduced by steps 1 and 2 4. Solution #1: reduce the oxide thickness. Circuit B appears optimized for the case where the transistor with input E is on the critical path since it is closer to the output node than in circuit A. 1965 Acrobat 7 Pdf 12. You started with simple resistive circuits, then dynamical systems (circuits with capacitors and inductors) and then op-amps. Introduction to Nanoelectronics 9 x v u e In Part 1, „The Quantum Particle‟, we will introduce the means to describe electrons in nanodevices. Testing a Transistor with a Digital Multimeter. 11 THE JUNCTION FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR (JFET) The junction field-effect transistor, or JFET, is perhaps the simplest transistor available. [PDF] A novel interpretation of transistor -parameters by poles and [PDF] ECE202A Problem Set #2: Device Modelling and Simple Broadband [PDF] Improvements on a MOSFET Model for Non-Linear RF Simulations [PDF] Limitations of Double Polysilicon Self-Aligned Bipolar Transistor Fully Integrated CMOS Radios from RF to Millimeter Wave. Operational amplifiers can still built from discrete components but with the introduction of silicon planar technologies and integrated circuits their performance improved and both size and cost reduced dramatically, and although computing has practically all moved from analogue circuitry to. I should be expressed as a function of. Microelectronic Systems VLSI- Design of Integrated Circuits 4. Introduction to Bipolar-Junction Transistors 3. Input and Output characteristics of NPN transistor 4. the equivalent of this transistor C2073 and A940 - Office Equipment & Supplies question That is a Sanyo type of line output transistor, sometimes used in power. 644 Principles of Electronics Here we can say that the circuit has h parameters given by h11 = 10 Ω ; h12 = 6 ; h21 = 4 and h 22 = 3 ∑. The reason for me placing a transistor switch in the circuit is so that I can turn the oscillator on and off from a PIC MCU. 5 Common Two-Way Radio Problems (and How to Fix Them) by KELCOM Radio Staff / Thursday, 07 July 2016 / Published in Agriculture , Blog , Construction , Digital Two-Way Radios , Government , Hospitality and Restaurant , Manufacturing and Warehousing , Property Management , Public Safety , Retail and Pharmacy , Transportation and Logistics. 7Periodic table A. 5 Lab Experiment 3 : Operational Amplifier. Removing all elements bypassed by the short-circuit equivalents introduced by steps 1 and 2 4. pass the task over to the IT department for d. (c) Constant chamber wall temperature is maintained at 77 K. The given voltage ratings are reverse. doc 1/8 Jim Stiles The Univ. 0 Introduction Like bipolar junction transistor, junction field effect transistor JFET is also a three-terminal device but it is a unipolar device, which shall mean that the current is made of either electron or hole carrier. Exercises and solutions • You know which basic transistor circuit causes a 180° phase shift. Appendices. You have the transistor in your hand. If the collector of an npn transistor was open circuited, it Forward active only for DC solution. NOTE: Final - Wed June 13 6-8pm [bring calculator, two 8. Chapter 1 1. The Q-point lies at ICQ = 1. 1 Circuit Analysis Problem Sheet 1 - Solutions 1. Forward Converter Transformer D. Direct printing of functional electronic materials may provide a new route to low-cost fabrication of integrated circuits. S Bharadwaj Reddy August. More than 240 problems are included to help readers test their basic amplifier and circuit design skills-and more than half of the problems feature fully worked-out solutions. your answers in Problem 3 to match the parameters in Problem 4. MOSFET Device Physics and Operation 1. Another possible result would be to rapidly discharge it through a wire loop to create a magnetic field. I want an output voltage of 5. Problem 2: Ebers-Moll Model. The given voltage ratings are reverse. Carver Mead, a professor at Caltech, dubbed this insight “Moore’s law. Bipolar Transistor Basics In the. The top supplying country is China (Mainland), which supply 100% of sk transistor respectively. This chapter describes the method of logical effort and applies it to simple examples. A simulation project will be required along with a midterm, final and homeworks (which will also have simulation problems). The imbalance in input currents manifests itself like a nonzero DC signal sitting on one of the. To turn on a particular transistor, set one of the two base control lines high, and one of the five emitter control lines low - only the transistor at the intersection will see a positive B-E voltage. transistors. SOLUTIONS, MATLAB Problems, Problem Set 1 18. 1 INTRODUCTION A field effect transistor (FET) operates as a conducting semiconductor channel with two ohmic contacts - the source and the drain - where the number of charge carriers in the channel is controlled by a third contact - the gate. Instructors of classes using Boylestad/Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10th edition, may reproduce material from the instructor's text solutions manual for classroom use. Voltage Scaling. Exercise: NMOS and CMOS Inverter Solution Suggestions 2. Welcome to the first edition of Semiconductor Devices, an open educational resource (OER). One core — Threads were for asynchrony, not parallelism Some cores Coarse-grained parallelism usually enough. 9a using the ideal - diode model. The shrinking of transistors to dimensions below 100 nm enables hundreds of millions transistors to be placed on a single chip. Some data includes: Table 1: Microprocessor transistor counts Date CPU Transistors (millions). Choose value for R 1 and R 3 such that the transistor has a collector current of 1 mA and a collector to emitter voltage of 2. If that voltage is -15V then an NPN transistor and Arduino ground at -15V would work. Sir, i want to ask. (Hooke’s law, shown in Figure3. pass the task over to the IT department for d. This lab manual provides an introduction to digital logic, starting with simple gates and building up to state machines. Najmabadi, ECE65, Winter 2012. SRAM Cell Design. 2 Chapter 6 Problem Set 5. SOLUTIONS, MATLAB Problems, Problem Set 1 18. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) Questions and Answers pdf free download for electronics ,mcqs,objective type Interview questions viva lab manuals Skip to content Engineering interview questions,Mcqs,Objective Questions,Class Notes,Seminor topics,Lab Viva Pdf free download. , when it is ON) is conductive In subthreshold, i. A voltage applied through a resistor to the base can control the current flowing from the collector to the emitter. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 22. Partial credit is achievable , so include all of your calculations and clearly indicate what you are trying to do. Bipolar Junction Transistors TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2007 9 Example 4. Introduction So far in EE100 you have seen analog circuits. 31, 2008 Introduction This note will discuss AC analysis using the beta, re transistor model shown in Figure 1 for the three types of amplifiers: common-emitter, common-base, and common-collector. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the last fty years. Chapter 10: Op-amp circuits for detectors, filtering, and power applications. 3 Circuit Solution By Assumed Diode States Analyze the circuit illustrated in Figure 3. Figure 1- 28 shows the symbol for a npn and a pnp transistor. A 220 V, 60 Hz voltage is applied to a centre tapped step-down transformer of 22: 1 with a. Setting the standard for nearly 30 years, this highly accurate text is supported by strong pedagogy and content that is ideal for new students of this rapidly changing field. Instructors of classes using Boylestad/Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10th edition, may reproduce material from the instructor's text solutions manual for classroom use. I want an output voltage of 5. If this era is really ending after 50 years (we had an hint with the end of frequency scaling) it's better to look around at all the innovative solutions. For over a decade, Infineon Technologies has paved the way and set market standards in all radio frequency segments. If the voltage regu-lator were a 5-volt source, then the voltage in the open circuit would be 5 volts. Collection of Solved Feedback Ampli fier Problems This document contains a collection of solved feedback amplifier problems involving one or more active devices. transistor is a single PNP: the good news is that dropout voltage can be as low as the saturation voltage of the PNP (a few hundred millivolts). EXAMPLE PROBLEM ON RESISTORS IN SERIES. Markov, the University of Michigan (currently at Google) Abstract An indispensable part of our lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Sk transistor products are most popular in North America, Eastern Europe, and South America. work autonomously and within a team to solve new problems; and to undertake advanced training of a. This creates an open circuit. It is in this region that the transistor can act as a fairly linear amplifier. Text: topology and switching transistor * Only available in ISODRAIN package 8 PWM+CCM PFC CoolSET TM , Power Supplies SMPS Controller with very few peripheral components, using MOS Transistor , magnetic coupling C Cheap solution Disadvantages C Power transistor drain-source voltage VDS = VO > VI , , ICE3DS01 Forward Converter Single Transistor. Other two factor can be found out by. 10/22/2004 Example PMOS Circuit Analysis. In early transistors, electrons can be treated purely as point particles. The most common solution is Class AB amplification, and an example of this is shown in Figure 2·4b. Five cards are chosen from a well shuffled deck. This current is mirrored into the collector of Q1 by dividing by (1+2/β). Design Solutions to Reduce Antenna Effect (cont. The OP said the power device (2N3055) is several feet from the driver transistor (MPS-U45). A resistor and transistor switch heavier loads than the 74AC14 chip can drive by itself. Such Moore scaling. 𝑖 Chosen so that both transistor are in saturation. These long distances can cause problems in motors due to fast power transistor switching frequencies and reflected waveforms that adversely affect motor winding insulation. Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL) n If any input goes high, the transistor saturates and V OUT goes low. BUT, Vout also will depend on VDD, because the average VGS = VDD in this circuit. Exercises Using the p-n Diode Program and n-p-n Diode Program. MOSFET Current Sources Reference: Neamen, Chapter 10 (4) Learning Outcome Able to: • Analyze and design a basic two-transistor MOSFET current-source circuit with additional MOSFET devices in the reference portion of the circuit to obtain a given bias current. 93m region = 2. Introduction to Nanoelectronics 9 x v u e In Part 1, „The Quantum Particle‟, we will introduce the means to describe electrons in nanodevices. ENEE 313, Fall '08 Supplement IV An Example Problem on the NMOS and A PMOS Introduction Zeynep Dilli, Dec. I've made 5v to 15v level shifter with using a transistor 2n2222. Transistors by Louis E. Of course it is always a good idea for. These are available whether you've become the teacher yourself and need to find a solution book or you've got an otherwise dedicated investment in finally finding out the solution to problem 14a on page 268 of your high school math book. Let's ASSUME the BJT is in the ACTIVE region ! Remember, this is just a guess; we have no way of knowing for sure what mode the BJT is in at this point. , when it is ON) is conductive In subthreshold, i. Solution: for emitter current , please draw the circuit of common base configuration , gives weigtage, the as per Kirchhoff's law find emitter current. Home » testing of transistor using digital multimeter pdf. Small-signal parameters of M1 gds = 238. BJT circuit practice problems You should do a bunch of these to get ready for quizzes, exams, etc. 2]Below in Figure 0. 85 kg from Problem 1 of Exercise 327 Standard deviation, σ = Determine the. Exercise: CMOS and Pass Transistor Logic 2 Institute of Microelectronic Systems n-channel transistors produce a logic 0 at the output when a logic 1 is apllied on its gate. Solution 2: Multiple V T Transistors Technology solution: Use (near) zero V T devices for the NMOS PTs to eliminate most of the threshold drop (body effect still in force preventing full swing to V DD) Impacts static power consumption due to subthreshold currents flowing through the PTs (even if V GS is below V T) Out In 2 = 0V In 1 = 2. Diode amplitude clamp. You can ensure product safety by selecting from certified suppliers,. The biggest problems with the numbers presented is that the transistors do vary a lot in production, and the On conditions are curves, not tidy linear lines that fit easily into formula. The three terminals are Drain (D), Source (S), and Gate (G). Almost every electrical engineering class in the English-speaking world and most solid state physics classes used it either as a text or at least as a reference book” (Shurkin, Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley ). 52mV, then perform. Although transistor-transistor logic (or TTL, as it is more usually called) has been largely superseded by other forms with superior performance, it is TTL which was the dominant type in the expanding days of the seventies and early eighties. Share; Like Solution: 2. This is a fixed bias scheme (because there is no RE) with a voltage divider providing VBB (It is unstable to temperature changes, see problem 2). The imbalance in input currents manifests itself like a nonzero DC signal sitting on one of the. Bipolar Junction Transistors TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2007 9 Example 4. Digital Integrated Circuits - 2nd Ed 5 12. The gain is a strong function of both temperature and bias current, and so the actual gain is somewhat unpredictable. 3 Transistor Switches 146 PROBLEM 19. Additionally, most power transistors have the collector or drain physically connected to the metal enclosure. For the parameters given in the previous problem find the maximum electric field within the space charge region. 6 V, RB=40 kΩand RC=2 kΩ. Solving methods to prevent this problem have been proposed in [5] and [6], but they cannot be used during real-time simulation. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Examples- Problems- Review Questions- Bibliography- Equations. X = the number of diamonds selected. transistor very low. The main technological problem was the control and reduction of the surface states at the interface between the oxide and the semiconductor. In this post provide you latest and updated 2018 Electrical MCQ Objective Questions with answer which are help for preparation all electrical engineering exams like GATE, IES, JTO, PSUs, RRB JE/AEN, RRB loco pilot and technicians, SSC JE, DMRC, LMRC, ISRO and other state level engineering exams. N Channel Self-Biased I DQ = 1. Sketch the layout of three interdigitized transistors having the same width. The estimated packaging resistance of different standard power. An N-channel JFET has V P = -4 volts and I DSS = 10 mA. Download White Rodgers 63123 Pdf - Bensherman. Question The current flowing in a circuit containing four resistors connected in series is I = 1. Choose to limit the effects of the variability of on the gain to 5%. These are available whether you've become the teacher yourself and need to find a solution book or you've got an otherwise dedicated investment in finally finding out the solution to problem 14a on page 268 of your high school math book. 06 allF '12 This problem set is due Thursda,y September 13, 2012 by 4pm in 2-255. (b) Photograph of a 10 × 10 TFT array on a flexible PEN substrate. 2 Graphical Determination of Q-point and Peak Signal Swings Suppose that the current of Figure 4. Such Moore scaling. Orcad family products offer a total solution for your core design tasks: schematic- and VHDL-based design entry; FPGA and CPLD design synthesis; digital, analog, and mixed-signal simulation; and printed circuit board layout. We neglect the Early effect in the analysis and assume the transistors to have identical parameters. tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. A transistor is a device that presents a high input resistance to the. Labs 1, 2, 4, and 5, were weighted twice as much as labs 3 and 6 because they were 2+ week labs and 3 and 6 were only one week. In an open circuit, source voltage is present. Hersam § , Gilles Dambrine ‡ , Henri Happy ‡ , and Vincent Derycke * †. 2 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 394 Determining the Operating Region of a BJT 397 Selecting an Operating Point for a BJT 399 PART II ELECTRONICS 336 Contents xiii Chapter 5 Transient Analysis 181 Chapter 6 Frequency Respose and System Concepts 231 Chapter 7 AC Power 281. Problems with LOCOS • Device “packing” density limited by “bird’s beak effect of FOX isolation layer. Gates and Logic: From Transistorsto Logic Gates and Logic Circuits Prof. Goodman August 27, 2014 The Matlab section quizzes at the end of each chapter use programs avail-able for download as the archive matcode. Models range from the very simple to sophisticated with the connections between models of successive levels clearly identified. Circuit (a) is a parallel circuit: there are only two nodes and all four components are connected between them. 10/22/2004 Example PMOS Circuit Analysis. We neglect the Early effect in the analysis and assume the transistors to have identical parameters. SOLUTIONS, MATLAB Problems, Problem Set 1 18. Design procedure for ground referenced and high side gate drive circuits, AC coupled and transformer isolated solutions are described in great details. With only a few exceptions, one or two transistors will provide more than enough gain for any oscillator circuit. 071 – Introduction to Electronics, Signals and Measurement Spring 2006 Final Exam • Please write your name on each page of the exam in the space provided. Step 1: One Device First we must nd the probability that one randomly selected device will function for at least 15 hours. Transistor basics •Emitter to base junction is forward biased (normally) •Collector to base junction is reverse biased (normally) •Transistors are current operated devices, so KCL should be applied first: -I E = I C + I B. MOS Transistor Noise Model The dominant source of noise in an MOS transistor is thermal noise, since the MOS transistor channel in strong inversion (i. Characteristics of Series-Parallel Circuits. DC Circuits. Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL) n If any input goes high, the transistor saturates and V OUT goes low.